The draw was made on Thursday and the South African No 1, who is seeded 11th for the year's first Grand Slam, is scheduled to face promising Brit Kyle Edmund in the first round.
Edmund, the world No 49, gave Anderson a torrid time in their only previous encounter on the ATP World Tour.
Edmund led Anderson by two sets to one in their Round 3 encounter at last year's French Open, before the South African rallied to win the final two sets.
The final scoreline that day read 6-7 (6/8), 7-6 (7/4), 5-7, 6-1, 6-4.
Edmund, 23, is the only British player in the men's singles main draw following the withdrawal of Andy Murray due to a hip injury.
Other seeded players in Anderson and Edmund's quarter of the draw include Lucas Pouille (France, No 18), Philipp Kohlschreiber (Germany, No 27) and Jack Sock (USA, No 8).